Electrochemistry plays a significant role in minimizing wastes at East Perm's secondary lead smelter. East Penn has been recovering spent battery acid for reuse in new batteries since 1992. East Penn also produces a fertilizer feedstock from sulfur dioxide in the smelter stack gases. The success of these processes is, in large part, due to the installation of electrochemical cells. The cells in the acid recovery plant allow the waste from this process to be concentrated into less that 10% of the original spent acid. The cells in the fertilizer plant treat the solution to remove dissolved metals prior to sale to fertilizer manufacturers.